Types and methods of metal processing
Metal processing in Lviv is our main specialization. Therefore, it is necessary to reveal this topic in more detail. What is metal processing? This is a process that consists in influencing metal or metal alloys with the help of manual labor or special equipment, in order to achieve certain forms, characteristics, dimensions, etc.
What are the main metal processing methods? There are four of them:
- Mechanical processing (cutting).
- Processing of metals under pressure.
All of them can be used both individually and in a complex and various combinations with each other. Let's look at each of them further.
Mechanical (milling) processing or cutting is a technology that is a mechanical effect on materials with the help of tools that, cutting, remove excess. As a result of this process, the metal acquires the required shape.
Mechanical processing has several varieties:
- Turning processing.
- Thread cutting.
- Influence of abrasive materials.
- Processing with a file.
Processing of metals under pressure involves processes aimed at changing the shape and configuration of the metal workpiece while preserving its integrity. It is divided into several types:
- Pressing, the basis of which is the extrusion of metal from the cavity of the matrix with the help of a press.
- Rolling is a technological process during which the rolls of the rolling mill, which rotate, compress the initial workpiece.
- Drawing is the process of drawing metal blanks through a narrowing hole in a tool called a draw.
- Forging is a high-temperature operation that involves preliminary heating of the workpiece to a certain forging temperature depending on the metal grade.
- Three-dimensional stamping is a type of impact on a metal blank with a stamp, as a result of which the semi-finished product acquires a given shape.
- Sheet stamping is the effect of pressure on metal, as a result of which the raw material is deformed and transformed into thin-walled blanks and parts for enterprises in the machine, shipbuilding, and automobile industries.
Metal welding is a process of combining two or more metal elements under the influence of temperature. It looks like this: the edges of metal products are heated, and under the influence of temperatures they will begin to melt, join and harden. As a result, a strong seam is formed. There are several types of welding:
The casting method involves preliminary melting of the metal, after which it is poured into forms in which it solidifies. Products made by casting are called castings.
The thesis that each of our clients will confirm: in our work, we use only high-quality metals and alloys that meet global industry standards. For the manufacture of your order, we will select the materials specified in the specification for your product.
What materials do we work with?
In most cases, we use the following materials for work:
- Stainless Steel;
- Special alloys;
Processing on milling machines: a multifunctional method of metal processing - this is exactly what we will talk about next. Our specialists have more than 10 years of experience in milling work, so they are happy to share their insights with the readers of our blog. Let's start with the basics!
Types of milling works
Milling works on metal are classified by:
- by the fixing method of the processed workpiece;
- direction of rotation of the cutting element.
Milling according to the method of fixing the processed workpiece on the machine is divided into vertical, horizontal, and corner. According to the rotation of the milling cutter (cutting element), the milling of metal is opposite and parallel.
Counter milling involves the movement of the cutting edge towards the workpiece (on the tooth of the cutter). This is the fastest processing method. The accompanying milling process consists of the movement of the cutter from top to bottom (under the teeth of the cutter). This type of metalworking guarantees a clean cut.
Both of these methods can be combined, which will ensure a much smaller number of defective blanks. For example, large workpieces should be processed first by the opposite method, and later apply the parallel method.
The type of metal surface being processed also affects the method of metal milling. Different types of milling cutters are used for surfaces that differ in the type of fastening, construction, tooth shape, and other characteristics:
- terminal, used in the processing of large parts;
- end ones, which are used when necessary to drill a "well" or a window in the part, to make a groove on it;
- shaped - suitable for milling metal profiles;
- peripheral, the feature of which is a metal chip in the form of a comma sign that remains after milling.
Laser metal cutting or laser cutting is a method of cutting and cutting metal using a powerful laser. Thanks to this processing method, the cut parts are extremely neat and with clear contours without errors. Also, laser cutting of metal allows you to produce parts of complex, unusual shapes, which are difficult to implement using other methods of metalworking.
The principle of operation is simple: cutting takes place thanks to the action of a powerful laser controlled by a computer. Under the influence of the laser beam, the area on which it is directed ignites and melts. In the process of work, there is no mechanical impact on the metal. Laser cutting is also safe for soft alloys and easily deformable metals.
What metals are suitable for laser cutting? The ideal option is metals with low thermal conductivity. There are several of them:
- Black (carbon) steel (thickness 0.2mm - 30mm);
- Stainless steel (thickness 0.2mm - 12mm);
- Brass (thickness 0.2mm - 12mm);
- Aluminum, aluminum alloys (thickness 0.2 mm - 20 mm);
- Copper, copper alloys (thickness 0.2 mm - 15 mm);